Part Sixteen - Page 1

  1. Wealth is a product of labor. Capital is an effect; a servant; a means.
  2. The most commonly accepted definition of wealth is that it consists of all useful and agreeable things which possess exchange value. It is this exchange value which is the predominant characteristic of wealth.
  3. When we consider the small addition made by wealth to the happiness of the possessor, we find that the true value consists not in its utility but in its exchange.
  4. This exchange value makes it a medium for securing the things of real value whereby our ideals may be realized.
  5. Wealth should then always be desired as a means of accomplishing an end. Success is contingent upon an ideal of helping others, and those who aspire to such success must formulate an ideal for which they are willing to strive.
  6. With such an ideal in mind, the ways and means can and will be provided, and the correct way must be made by substituting the end for the means. There must be a definite fixed purpose, an ideal.
  7. Prentice Mulford said: The person of success is the person possessed of the greatest spiritual understanding and every great fortune comes of superior and truly spiritual power. Fortunately, there are those who recognize this power; they remember that Andrew Carnegie's mother had to help support the family when they came to America, that Harriman's father was a poor clergyman with a salary of only $200.00 a year, that Sir Thomas Lipton started with only 25 cents. These men had no other power to depend upon, but it served them well.

Part Sixteen - Introduction

The vibratory activities of the planetary Universe are governed by a law of periodicity. Everything that lives has periods of birth, growth, fruitage, and decline. These periods are governed by the Septimal Law.

The Law of Sevens governs the days of the week, the phases of the moon, the harmonies of sound, light, heat, electricity, magnetism, atomic structure. It governs the life of individuals and of nations, and it dominates the activities of the commercial world.

Life is growth, and growth is change, each seven year period takes us into a new cycle. The first seven years is the period of infancy. The next seven the period of childhood, representing the beginning of individual responsibility. The next seven represents the period of adolescence. The fourth period marks the attainment of full growth. The fifth period is the constructive period, when people begin to acquire property, possessions, a home and family. The next from 35 to 42, is a period of reactions and changes, and this in turn is followed by a period of reconstruction, adjustment and recuperation, so as to be ready for a new cycle of sevens, beginning with the fiftieth year.

Those familiar with these cycles will be ok with any situation, for they can apply the principle outlined in these lessons with the full assurance that a higher law will invariably control all other laws, and that through an understanding and conscious operation of spiritual laws, we can convert every situation into a blessing.

Part Fifteen - Study Questions with Answers

  1. What determines the degree of harmony which we attain?
    Our ability to appropriate what we require for our growth from each experience.
  2. What do easiness and bonuses indicate?
    That we have gained wisdom and spiritual growth.
  3. How may easiness be achieved?
    By a conscious understanding of and cooperation with Natural laws.
  4. What is the principle by which thought manifests itself in form?
    The Law of Attraction.
  5. How is the necessary material secured by which the growth, development and maturity of the idea take form?
    The law of love, which is the creative principle of the Universe, imparts vitality to the thought, and the law of attraction brings the necessary substance by the law of growth.
  6. How are desirable conditions secured?
    By only entertaining desirable thoughts.
  7. How are desirable conditions brought about?
    By thinking, discussing and visualizing conditions of abundance, freedom, health, harmony and accord of every kind. This mental photography of correct conceptions is taken up by the subconscious and the law of attraction will inevitably crystallize it into objective form. That we reap what we sow is scientifically exact.
  8. How can we achieve every kind of love, abundance, freedom, wealth and harmony?
    By instituting principle.
  9. How may we recognize principle?
    By a conscious realization of the fact that Truth invariably conquers all. All that is necessary is to turn on the light. The same principle applies to every form of non positive thought.
  10. What is the value of Insight?
    It enables us to understand the value of making application of the knowledge which we gain. Some think that knowledge needs application, which is by all means true.
To every person there openeth a way,

And the high soul climbs the high way,

To every person there openeth

A high way

And every person decideth

The way their soul shall go.

Part Fifteen - Page 6

  1. For your exercise this week, concentrate on Insight; take your accustomed position and focus the thought on the fact that to have a knowledge of the creative power of thought means to be Silent. Let the thought dwell on the fact that knowledge is dormant. That our actions are governed by custom, precedent and habit. That the only way we can get ourselves to apply knowledge is by a determined conscious effort. Call to mind the fact that knowledge used stays in the mind, that the value of the information is in the application of the principle; continue this line of thought until you gain sufficient insight to formulate a definite program for applying this principle to your own particular situation.

Think truly, and thy thoughts

Shall the world feed;

Speak truly, and each word of thine

Shall be a fruitful seed;

Live truly, and thy life shall be

A great and noble creed.

- Horatio Bonar, revised and made thoroughly positive by Darren J. McLeod

Part Fifteen - Page 5

  1. In the physical world there is a law of compensation which is that the appearance of a given amount of energy anywhere means the disappearance of the same amount somewhere else, and so we find that we can get only what we give; if we pledge ourselves to a certain action we must be prepared to assume the responsibility for the development of that action. The subconscious can only accept. It takes us at our word; we have asked for something; we are now to receive it; we have made our bed, we are now to lie in it; the die has been cast; the threads will carry out the pattern we have made.
  2. For this reason Insight must be exercised so that the thought which we entertain contains only mental, moral and physical seeds which we do wish objectified in our lives.
  3. Insight is a faculty of the mind whereby we are enabled to examine facts and conditions at long range, a kind of human telescope; it enables us to understand all aspects, in any undertaking.
  4. Insight enables us to be prepared for the situations which we shall meet; we can therefore overcome them easily.
  5. Insight enables us to plan to advantage and turn our thought and attention in the right direction, into channels which can yield a definite return.
  6. Insight is therefore absolutely essential for the development of any great achievement, and with it we may enter, explore and possess any mental field.
  7. Insight is a product of the world within and is developed in the Silence, by concentration.

Part Fifteen - Page 4

  1. The beauty of the word consists in the beauty of the thought; the power of the word consists in the power of the thought, and the power of the thought consists in its vitality. How shall we identify a vital thought? What are its distinguishing characteristics? It must have principal. How shall we identify principle?
  2. There is a principle of Mathematics; there is a principle of health; there is a principle of truth; there is a principle of light, and there is a principle of abundance.
  3. How shall we know that this is true? Because if we apply the principle of Mathematics correctly we shall be certain of our results. Where there is health there is the application of the principle of health. If we know the Truth we have applied the principle of truth. If we let in light we have applied the principle of light, and where there is abundance there has been the application of the principle of abundance.
  4. These are self-evident facts, but the all-important truth that a thought containing principle is vital and therefore contains life and consequently takes root, and eventually but surely and certainly there will be only positive thoughts, which by their very nature contain vitality, is one which is to take note of.
  5. This is a fact which will enable you to create every manner of harmony, abundance and freedom.
  6. It is certain that those who are wise enough to understand will readily recognize that the creative power of thought places an all powerful tool in their hands and makes them a master of destiny.

Part Fifteen - Page 3

  1. We manifest more and more life as our thought becomes clarified and takes higher planes. This is obtained with greater facility as we use word pictures that are clearly defined, and influenced by the conceptions attached to them on higher planes of thought.
  2. It is with words that we must express our thoughts, and if we are to make use of higher forms of truth, we may use only such material as has been carefully and intelligently selected with this purpose in view.
  3. This wonderful power of clothing thoughts in the form of words is what differentiates humans from the rest of the animal kingdom; by the use of the written word humans have been enabled to look back over the centuries and see the stirring scenes by which they have come into their present inheritance.
  4. They have been enabled to come into communion with the greatest writers and thinkers of all time, and the combined record which we possess today is therefore the expression of Universal Thought as it has been seeking to take form in the mind of Humanity.
  5. We know that the Universal Thought has for its goal the creation of form, and we know that the individual thought is likewise forever attempting to express itself in form, and we know that the word is a thought form, and a sentence is a combination of thought forms, therefore, if we wish our ideal to be beautiful or strong, we must see that the words out of which this temple will eventually be created are exact, that they are put together carefully, because accuracy in building words and sentences is the highest form of architecture in civilization and is a passport to success.
  6. Words are thoughts and are therefore an invisible and invincible power which will finally objectify themselves in the form they are given.
  7. Words may become mental places that will live forever. They may delight the eye as well as the ear; they may contain all knowledge; in them we find the history of the past as well as the hope of the future; they are living messengers from which every human and superhuman activity is born.

Part Fifteen - Page 2

  1. The inexorable requirements of growth demand that we exert the greatest degree of attraction for what is perfectly in accord with us. Our highest happiness will be best attained through our understanding of, and conscious cooperation with natural laws.
  2. In order to possess vitality thought must be impregnated with love. Love is a product of the emotions. It is therefore essential that the emotions be controlled and guided by the intellect and reason.
  3. It is love which imparts vitality to thought and thus enables it to germinate. The law of attraction, or the law of love, for they are one and the same, will bring to it the necessary material for its growth and maturity.
  4. The first form which thought will find is language, or words; this determines the importance of words; they are the first manifestation of thought -- the vessels in which thought is carried. They take hold of the ether and by setting it in motion reproduce the thought to others in the form of sound.
  5. Thought may lead to action of any kind, but whatever the action, it is simply the thought attempting to express itself in visible form. It is evident, therefore, that if we wish desirable conditions, we can afford to entertain only desirable thoughts.
  6. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that if we wish to express abundance in our lives, we can afford to think abundance only, and as words are only thoughts taking form, we must be especially careful to use only constructive and harmonious language, which when finally crystallized into objective forms, will prove to our advantage.
  7. We are the pictures we incessantly photograph on the mind, and the photography of accurate conceptions is exactly what is being done by the use of words, when we use any form of language which is identified with our welfare.

Part Fifteen - Page 1

  1. The laws under which we live are designed solely for our advantage. These laws are immutable and we must follow their operation.
  2. All the great eternal forces act in solemn silence, but it is in our power to place ourselves in harmony with them and thus express a life of comparative peace and happiness.
  3. Easiness, harmonies, and bonuses, indicate that we are giving out what we no longer need, and accepting what we require.
  4. Growth is attained through an exchange of the old for the new, of the good for the better; it is a conditional or reciprocal action, for each of us is a complete thought entity and this completeness makes it possible for us to receive only as we give.
  5. We can obtain what we want if we graciously give what we have. We are able to consciously control our conditions as we come to sense the purpose of what we attract, and are able to extract from each experience only what we require for our further growth. Our ability to do this determines the degree of harmony or happiness we attain.
  6. The ability to appropriate what we require for our growth, continually increases as we reach higher planes and broader visions, and the greater our abilities to know what we require, the more certain we shall be to discern its presence, to attract it and to absorb it. Nothing may reach us except what is necessary for our growth.
  7. All conditions and experiences that come to us do so for our benefit. Easiness and bonuses are common once we have absorbed the wisdom and gathered the essentials of further growth from past circumstances.
  8. That we reap what we sow is mathematically exact. We gain permanent strength exactly to the extent of the effort required to achieve our goals.

Part Fifteen - Introduction

Experiments with parasites found on plants indicate that even the lowest order of life is enabled to take advantage of natural law. This experiment was made by Jacques Loch, M.D., Ph.D., a member of the Rockefeller Institute.
In order to obtain the material, potted rose bushes are brought into a room and placed in front of a closed window. If the plants are allowed to dry out, the aphids (parasites), previously wingless, change to winged insects. After the metamorphosis, the animals leave the plants, fly to the window and then creep upward on the glass.
It is evident that these tiny insects found that the plants on which they had been thriving were dead, and that they could therefore secure nothing more to eat and drink from this source. The only method by which they could save themselves from starvation was to grow temporary wings and fly, which they did.

Experiments such as these indicate that Omniscience as well as Omnipotence is omnipresent and that the tiniest living thing can take advantage of it in an emergency.

Part Fifteen will tell you more about the law under which we live. It will explain that these laws operate to our advantage; that all conditions and experiences that come to us are for our benefit; that we gain strength in proportion to the effort expended, and that our happiness is best attained through a conscious cooperation with natural laws.

Part Fourteen - Study Question with Answers

  1. What is the source of all Wisdom, Power and Intelligence?
    The Universal Mind.
  2. Where do all motion, light, heat and color have their origin?
    In the Universal Energy, which is one manifestation of the Universal Mind.
  3. Where does the creative power of thought originate?
    In the Universal Mind.
  4. What is thought?
    Mind in motion.
  5. How is the Universal differentiated in form?
    The individual is the means by which the Universal produces the various combinations which result in formation of phenomena.
  6. How is this accomplished?
    The power of the individual to think is their ability to act upon the Universal and bring it into manifestation.
  7. What is the first form which the Universal takes so far as we know?
    Electrons, which fill all space.
  8. Where do all things have their origin?
    In mind.
  9. What is the result of a change of thought?
    A change in conditions.
  10. What is the result of a harmonious mental attitude?
    Harmonious conditions in life. Thought, immaterial though it may be, is the matrix that shapes the issues of life.
The mind has been active in all fields during this fruitful century, but it is to science we must look for the thoughts that have shaped all thinking.

Part Fourteen - Page 6

  1. For your exercise this week, concentrate on Harmony, and when I say concentrate, I mean all that the word implies; concentrate so deeply, so earnestly, that you will be conscious of only harmony. Remember, we learn by doing. It is in the practical application that the value consists.
Learn to only keep the door open for, keep in your mind and in your world, elements that seek admittance which have a definite helpful end in view. - Darren J. McLeod

Part Fourteen - Page 5

  1. A scientific understanding of this principle will explain the wonderful results which are secured through the power of meditation. The results which are secured in this way are brought about by ordinary dispensations of providence, and they are the result of the operation of a perfectly natural law. It is, therefore, secular and open.
  2. There are some who are ready to enter into the discipline necessary to think correctly, because it is evident that right thinking has brought success.
  3. Thought is the only reality; conditions are but the outward manifestations; as the thought changes, all outward or material conditions must change in order to be in harmony with their creator, which is thought.
  4. But the thought must be clear cut, steady, fixed, definite; you can only take one step at a time, you can spend twenty or thirty years of your life building up positive conditions as the result of positive thoughts, and your life will be wonderful.
  5. If you enter into the discipline necessary to bring about a radical change in your life, you must do so deliberately, after giving the matter careful thought and full consideration, and then you must always stand by and uphold your decision.
  6. This discipline, this change of thought, this mental attitude will bring you the material things which are necessary for your highest and best welfare, and will bring health and harmonious conditions generally.
  7. If you wish harmonious conditions in your life, you must develop an harmonious mental attitude.
  8. Your world without will be a reflection of your world within.

Part Fourteen - Page 4

  1. In mental, as in natural science, experiments are being made and each discovery lifts people one step higher toward their possible goal. We find that every person is the reflection of the thought they have entertained during their lifetime. This is stamped on their face, their form, their character, their environment.
  2. Back of every effect there is a cause, and if we follow the trail to its starting point, we shall find the creative principle out of which it grew. Proofs of this are now so complete that this truth is generally accepted.
  3. The objective world is controlled by an unseen and, here tofore, unexplainable power. We have learned to look upon it as the permeating essence or Principle of all that exists -- the Infinite or Universal Mind.
  4. The Universal Mind, being infinite and omnipotent, has unlimited resources at its command, and when we remember that it is also omnipresent, we cannot escape the conclusion that we must be an expression or manifestation of that Mind.
  5. A recognition and understanding of the resources of the subconscious mind will indicate that the only difference between the subconscious and the Universal is one of degree. They differ only as a drop of water differs from the ocean. They are the same in kind and quality, the difference is one of degree only.
  6. Do you, can you, appreciate the value of this all-important fact; do you realize that a recognition of this tremendous fact places you in touch with Omnipotence? The subconscious mind being the connecting link between the Universal Mind and the conscious mind, is it not evident that the conscious mind can consciously suggest thoughts which the subconscious mind will put into action, and as the subconscious is one with the Universal, is it not evident that no limit can be placed upon its activities?

Part Fourteen - Page 3

  1. Electrons manifest in the body as cells, and possess mind and intelligence sufficient for them to perform their functions in the human physical anatomy. Every part of the body is composed of cells, some of which operate independently; others in communities. Some are busy building tissue, while others are engaged in forming the various secretions necessary for the body. Some act as carriers of material; others are the surgeons whose work it is to repair damage; others are scavengers, carrying off waste; others are constantly ready to repel invaders or other undesirable intruders of the germ family.
  2. All these cells are moving for a common purpose and each one is a living organism, and has sufficient intelligence to enable it to perform its necessary duties. It is also endowed with sufficient intelligence to conserve the energies and perpetuate its own life. It must, therefore, secure sufficient nourishment and it has been found that it exercises choice in the selection of such nourishment.
  3. Each cell is born, reproduces itself, dies and is absorbed. The maintenance of health and life itself depends upon the constant regeneration of these cells.
  4. It is therefore apparent that there is mind in every atom of the body; this mind is instinctive mind, and the power of the individual to think makes them reason, so that they can control this instinctive mind. This is the scientific explanation for metaphysical healing, and will enable anyone to understand the principle upon which this remarkable phenomenon rests.
  5. This instinctive mind, which is contained in every cell of the body, has been called the subconscious mind, because it acts without our conscious knowledge. We have found that this subconscious mind is responsive to the will of the conscious mind.
  6. All things have their origin in mind, and appearances are the result of thought. So that we see that things in themselves have no origin, permanency, or reality. Since they are produced by thought, they can be erased by thought.

Part Fourteen - Page 2

  1. We know that scientists have resolved matter into an immense number of molecules; these molecules have been resolved into atoms, and the atoms into electrons. The discovery of electrons in high vacuum glass tubes containing fused terminals of hard metal, indicates conclusively that these electrons fill all space; that they exist everywhere, that they are omnipresent. They fill all material bodies and occupy the whole of what we call empty space. This, then, is the Universal Substance from which all things proceed.
  2. Electrons would forever remain electrons unless directed where to go to be assembled into atoms and molecules, and this director is Mind. A number of electrons revolving around a center of force constitutes an atom; atoms unite in absolutely regular mathematical ratios and form molecules, and these unite with each other to form a multitude of compounds which unite to build the Universe.
  3. The lightest known atom is hydrogen and this is 1,700 times heavier than an electron. An atom of mercury is 300,000 times heavier than an electron. Electrons are pure negative electricity, and as they have the same potential velocity as all other cosmic energy, such as heat, light, electricity and thought (189,380 miles per second), neither time nor space require consideration. The manner in which the velocity of light was ascertained is interesting.
  4. The velocity of light was obtained by the Danish astronomer Roemer in 1676, by observing the eclipses of Jupiter's moons. When the earth was nearest to Jupiter, the eclipse appeared about eight and one-half minutes too soon for the calculations, and when the earth was most remote from Jupiter, they were about eight and one-half minutes too late. Roemer concluded the reason to be that it required 17 minutes for light from the planet to traverse the diameter of the earth's orbit, which measured the difference of the distances of the earth from Jupiter. This calculation has since been verified, and proves that light travels about 186,000 miles a second.

Part Fourteen - Page 1

  1. The Universal Energy in which all motion, light, heat, and color have their origin, is free of the many effects of which it is the cause, it is supreme over them all. This Universal Substance is the source of all Power, Wisdom and Intelligence.
  2. To recognize this Intelligence is to acquaint yourself with the knowing quality of Mind and through it to move upon the Universal Substance, and bring it into harmonious relations in your affairs.
  3. This is something that the most learned physical science teacher has not attempted -- a field of discovery upon which they have not yet launched; in fact, but few of the materialistic schools have ever caught the first ray of this light. It does not seem to have dawned upon them that wisdom is just as much present everywhere as are force and substance.
  4. Some will say, if these principles are true, why are we not demonstrating them? As the fundamental principle is obviously correct, why do we not get proper results? We do. We get results in exact accordance with our understanding of the law and our ability to make the proper application. We secured no results from the laws governing electricity until someone formulated the law and showed us how to apply it.
  5. This puts us in an entirely new relation to our environment, opening up possibilities previously undreamed of, and this by an orderly sequence of law which is naturally involved in our new mental attitude.
  6. Mind is creative and the principle upon which this law is based.
  7. It is sound and legitimate and is inherent in the nature of things; this creative power originates in the Universal, which is the source and fountain of all energy and substance, the individual is simply the channel for the distribution of this energy. The individual is the means by which the Universal produces the various combinations which result in the formation of phenomena.

Part Fourteen - Introduction

You have found from your study thus far that thought is a spiritual activity and is therefore endowed with creative power. This means that all thought is creative. This same principle can be brought into operation in a positive way, through the process of allowing.

The conscious and subconscious are but two phases of action in connection with one mind. The relation of the subconscious to the conscious is quite analogous to that existing between a weather vane and the atmosphere. Just as the least pressure of the atmosphere causes an action on the part of the weather vane, so does the least thought entertained by the conscious mind produce within your subconscious mind action in exact proportion to the depth of feeling characterizing the thought and the intensity with which the thought is indulged.

It follows that if you allow satisfactory conditions, you are bringing the creative power of your thought to these conditions. You are feeding them right at the root. You are giving them vitality.

Remember that the law of growth necessarily governs every manifestation in the objective, so that an allowance of satisfactory conditions will bring about instant change. A plant will remain visible for some time after its roots have been fed, and it will gradually strengthen and eventually grow, so the addition of your thought to the contemplation of satisfactory conditions will gradually, but surely germinate these conditions.

Some people concentrate intently upon satisfactory conditions, thereby giving the condition that measure of energy and vitality which is necessary in order to supply a vigorous growth.

Part Thirteen - Study Questions with Answers

  1. What is the method by which natural philosophers obtain and apply their knowledge?
    To observe individual facts carefully, patiently, accurately, with all the instruments and resources at their command, before venturing upon a statement of general laws.
  2. How may we be certain that this method is correct?
    By allowing a democratic impartiality to take heed of and preserve welcome facts.
  3. What class of facts are esteemed most highly?
    Those which cannot be accounted for by the usual daily observation of life.
  4. Upon what is this principle founded?
    Upon reason and experience.
  5. What does it create?
    Rationality, logic and science.
  6. How have these laws been discovered?
    By a generalization of facts which are uncommon, rare, strange and form the exception.
  7. How may we account for much of the strange and heretofore unexplainable phenomena which is constantly taking place?
    By the creative power of thought.
  8. Why is this so?
    Because when we learn of a fact we can be sure that it is the result of a certain definite cause and that this cause will operate with constant precision.
  9. What is the result of this knowledge?
    It will explain the cause of every possible condition, whether physical, mental or spiritual.
  10. How will our best interest be conserved?
    By a recognition of the fact that a knowledge of the creative nature of thought puts us in touch with Infinite power.

Part Thirteen - Page 6

  1. We can best conserve our interests by recognizing the Infinite Power and Infinite Wisdom of the Universal Mind, and in this way become a channel whereby the Infinite can bring about the realization of our desire. This means that recognition brings about realization, therefore for your exercise this week make use of the principle, recognize the fact that you are a part of the whole, and that a part must be the same in kind and quality as the whole; the only difference there can possibly be, is in degree.
  2. When this tremendous fact begins to permeate your consciousness, when you really come into a realization of the fact that you, the spirit which thinks is an integral part of the great whole, that it is the same in substance, in quality, in kind, that the Creator could create nothing different from Itself, you will also be able to say, The Infinite and I are one and you will come into an understanding of the beauty, the grandeur, the transcendental opportunities which have been placed at your feet.

Increase in me that wisdom

Which discovers my truest interest,

Strengthen my resolution

To perform that which wisdom dictates.
- Franklin

Part Thirteen - Page 5

  1. In the first place, we must put our knowledge into practice. This is the only way to accomplish something. The athlete may read books and lessons on physical training all their life, but when they begin to give out strength by actual work they will receive strength; they will eventually get exactly what they give; but they will have to give it first. It is exactly the same with us; we will get exactly what we give, but we shall have to give it first. It will then return to us many fold, and the giving is simply a mental process, because thoughts are causes and conditions are effects; therefore in giving thoughts of courage, inspiration, health or help of any kind we are setting causes in motion which will bring about their effect.
  2. Thought is a spiritual activity and is therefore creative, but be accurate, thought will only create something when it is consciously, systematically, and constructively directed; this is constructive thinking, which means practically achieving anything.
  3. We have found that everything we get comes to us by the Law of Attraction. A happy thought can only exist in a happy consciousness; therefore the consciousness must change, and, as the consciousness changes, all conditions necessary to meet the changed consciousness must gradually change, in order to meet the requirements of the new situation.
  4. In creating a Mental Image or an Ideal, we are projecting a thought into the Universal Substance from which all things are created. This Universal Substance is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Omniscient. Let the Omniscient choose the proper channel to be used to materialize our demand. This is the cause of success; of every success. We recognize the Omnipresence of the Universal Substance, and we appreciate the fact that this substance is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Omniscient, and consequently will set causes in motion concerning which we may be entirely ignorant.